It is inflammation of the mucus membranes that line the sinus resulting in signs and symptoms. Common symptoms include thick nasal discharge, plugged nose & facial pain .Other signs and symptoms may include fever , headache or facial pain or pressure of a dull ,constant or aching sort over the affected sinuses is common with both acute or chronic rhinosinusitis .Pain is usually localized to the involved sinus and may worsen when the affected person lying down .
Infection of the eye socket is possible, which may result in the loss of sight and is accompanied by fever and sever illness. Another possible complication is the infection of the bones (osteomylitis) of the forehead and other facial bones.
90% of sinus headache are actually migraines because migraine involves activation of the trigeminal nerve.
Rhinosinusitis can also cause middle ear problems due to the congestion of the nasal passages. This can demonstrated by dizziness or vibrating sensation in the head.
Halitosis (bad breath) is often stated to be a symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis .
Rhinosinusitis is a common condition affects about 10 and 30 % of people each year & can be caused by infection, allergies, air pollution or structural problem of the nose. Most cases are caused by a viral infection .A bacterial infection may be present if symptoms last more than 10 days or if the person worsens after starting to improve. Recurrent episodes are more likely in person with asthma, cystic fibrosis and poor immune function. Xrays are not usually needed unless complication are suspected while the computed tomography is highly recommended in chronic rhinosinusitis.
Some cases may be prevented by hand washing, avoiding smoking, and immunization .Pain killer such as naproxen, nasal steroids, and nasal irrigation may be used to help with symptoms. Recommended initial treatment for acute sinusitis is watchful waiting. If symptoms do not improve in 7-10 days or get worse, then antibiotic may be used or changed. Surgery is indicated in chronic disease.
Dr. Awni mansour
Consultant ORL-HNS Endoscopist